What is an artificial pacemaker device:
To understand the functioning of an artificial pacemaker we must know natural pacemaker system of our heart. Our heart is made of muscles and muscles in turn are made of myofibrils, contraction of myofibrils produces resultant action as a result of muscular contraction, here in heart it is pumping of blood to all other parts of our body, which is essential for supplying oxygen to brain, and other body tissues, slight disruption in supply of blood to brain or heart muscles it self may result in hypoxia, (lack of oxygen) and may prove fatal, the later condition is called as heart attack, an artery supplying blood to heart muscle may get blocked and blood supply to heart is stopped resulting in to hypoxia of heart muscles and heart stop pumping blood to other organs of body.
Contraction of any muscles is facilitated by an impulse, and most of the impulse originate from brain that is from central nervous system but in care of heart the impulse is independent of central nervous system, even we sleep, or if there is state of severe trauma to other part of body, heart keeps on functioning as it has its own impulse generating system which keeps on stimulating heart at required regular intervals and heart keep on pumping blood. Therefore the nervous system is also called as autonomous nervous system.
Impulse needed for muscular contraction of heart muscles originate in Sinoatrial Node in right atrium stimulates and then it passes on over left atrium via Bachmann’s bundle producing atrial contractions and on Atrioventricular Node after a sight delay stimuli passes from bundle of His to ventricles through Purkinje Fibers stimulating ventricular contractions in rhythmic manner. This system together is also called as natural pacemaker.
In some patients the natural pacemaker system develops a defect over the time due to certain disease or old age, in there system, they are at the risk of developing congestive cardiac failure, as the impulse required for cardiac contraction in not enough or it is lesser in its potential or irregular impulses are generated by natural peacemaker system.
In such conditions an external medical device which can generate and deliver an electrical impulse just similar to natural impulse through electrodes is implanted in heart, where pacing electrodes are placed by transvenous insertion in to one or more heart chambers. Some artificial pacemaker devices also integrate defibrillators which also take care of ventricular fibrillations which are uncontrolled ventricular contractions where there is higher risk of sudden contractions (asystole), and sudden death.
These devices are known as artificial pacemaker devices they are required to comply with the all requirements and regulations of US FDA for their quality, efficacy and safety. Person with conventional artificial pacemaker implant should not be subjected to MRI scanning as the heavy magnetic fields in MRI may disrupt settings and the electrodes which may damage heart muscles. It requires that one should have a special artificial pacemaker which can be used while MRI scanning.
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