What is an Antigen and Autoimmune diseases

What is an Antigen ? what is autoimmune disease?Antigen
Antigen is a molecule or minute particle usually proteins or polysaccharides originating from biological or chemical or viruses, and other microorganisms (bacterial or fungal cells , bacterial cell fragments DNA , RNA,enzymes and protienacious material coats, capsules, cell walls, flagella, fimbrae, and toxins)

Lipids & nucleic acids become antigenic only after they they combine to a polysaccharides or proteins.

Exogenous Non microbial ,non-self, antigens are proteins from transplanted tissues and organs ,pollen grains, egg white,transfused blood cells surface.

Antigens pose a risk to our body and hence as a protective mechanism our body ,antigens are identified by our immune system when they come in contact with our body immune system they triggers antibody generation and are neutralised through various antibody antigen reaction resulting in to antigen neutralisation.

Antigen triggers generation of specific antibodies specific to that particular antigen, after which these antibodies bind to antigens and neutralises the harmful effect of an antigens on our body. Antigen also bind through major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and present themselves to a T-cell receptor.

Antigens originated in ones body are called as self antigens which are normally tolerated by the immune system , whereas foreign antigens called as non self antigens are seen as unwanted harmful material and are neutralised by our immune system.
Antigens are responsible for allergenic reactions

Autoimmune diseases and disorders

Autoimmune diseases and disorders originate from the immune system responses to its own body antigens other wise left not attacked by normal immune system response.

Autoimmune diseases originate from hyperactive immune response of our body against substances and tissues (metabolites ,enzymes tissue fragments bone fragments muscle fragments) normally present in the body. That is our body in fact attacks its own body tissue cells. The immune system makes a mistake and recognises these body tissue cells and their fragments as pathogens and triggers a immune response against these body tissue cells.resulting in to self destruction of body’s normal tissue cells making body deprive of these tissue cells , this results in some times in to a disease due to loss of tissue under autoimmune attack
Such conditions may be limited to specific organs (example: in chagas disease it may involve a specific tissue in different places (example: Goodpasture’s disease which may affects basement membrane in lung as well as in kidney).

Treatment for autoimmune diseases & disorders is normally done with an immunosuppressant drug which decreases reactiveness and degree of autoimmune response of our body’s immune system.

Immunogenicity: it is a capability of a material to stimulate a humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response

Antigenicity: It is a capability to combine categorically with the end products of immune response(that is antibodies ,surface receptors on T-cells). All molecules which has effects as immunogenicity also posses the property of antigenicity.

Vaccine is an example of antigen which is immunogenic and is deliberately administered to induce immunity.

What is allergen and allergenic extracts and their requirements of purity

What is What is 510(k) Clearances ?
What is 510(k) Clearances, Premarket Notification for medical devices – PMN or 510(k)

What is an antibody? what is monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies?

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA

Raido Immuno assay


Pharmaceutical Aseptic Manufacturing Process Terms , Terminology and Definations.


Here are some articles which will be useful for you in further understanding of aspects of sterile dosage form manufacturing and regulatory affairs and good manufacturing practice in pharmaceutical industry

Pharmaceutical Validation

Types of validations in pharmaceutical manufacturing

Requirements of documents for validation of sterilisation process

How to investigate OOS out of specification results

Determination of Phenol coeeficient of a disinfectant

Sterility testing

Cleen Room Classification

Time limitations in sterile pharmaceuticals processing

Aspects of validation of manufacturing process in sterile pharmaceuticals

Clinical Trials

Controling Pyrogens in injectable dosage forms

Media fill run process simulation aspects Validation of Aseptic Process and Sterilisation

New Drug Application (NDA) how to make a New Drug Application (NDA) to US FDA

Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) What is ANDA , detaied information about ANDA preparation and submission to US FDA

How to make Investigational New Drug (IND) Application to US FDA

Drug applications submission to us fda Over the counter Drugs OTC drugs


Eletronic record in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry

Good manufacturing practice in pharmaceutical industry

Pharmaceutical industry pharmaceutical companies and FDA latest updates

Here is an intresting article on world wide pharmaceutical industry
Article on Pharmaceutical Industry pharmaceutical industry

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