What is Type 2 Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes?
There are three types of diabetes, type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes and Gestational diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes is an endocrine disease, which occurs when a person’s endocrine system, that is, pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, and the insulin produced by pancreases is not effective to handle the blood glucose.
Type 1 Diabetes.
Person’s endocrine system, that is the pancreas is not able to produce insulin. Due to various reasons. Endocrine system not functioning properly, not able to sense the positive feedback mechanism after increase in blood glucose level in blood. Type 1 Diabetes is diagnosed in childhood itself therefore it is also called juvenile diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes:
In case of type 2 diabetes, the effect of insulin on blood is reduced therefore higher amounts of glucose remains in blood circulation. Therefore, our body keeps on producing more and more insulin. The effect of insulin is reduced on body tissue. Glucose from the blood is not absorbed in the body muscles and tissues. In type 2 diabetes, insulin if given as subcutaneous injection do not produce the desired antidiabetic effect. Therefore, other antidiabetic drugs are required to be given to patients.
Some cases of pregnancy due to hormonal changes, blood glucose level is increased. This type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in the second and third trimester but can occur at any time during the pregnancy.
Weight loss surgery, and past history of parents with diabetes, being overweight, and eating junk food are the few reasons for gestational diabetes.
Mechanism of insulin secretion. Feedback mechanism regulation of insulin secretion.
Insulin is secreted by endocrine organ pancreas.
Insulin is responsible for removing the blood glucose from the blood and moving it into body tissue like muscle tissue, adipose tissue etc.
In normal instances, an increase in blood glucose level endocrine system sends positive feedback to start secretion of insulin in the bloodstream. The process is called insulin exocytosis. Up on sensing the increased blood glucose level in β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The intracellular calcium ion concentration increases in β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The permeability of pancreatic β-cell increases and insulin is secreted in the bloodstream.