Type 1 Diabetes

Jun 1, 2023

Type 1 Diabetes: What is type 1 Diabetes?

The food we eat is converted in to glucose and absorbed in to the blood, high concentration of glucose or sugar damages the lining of the blood vessels, increase blood pressure and increase load on kideny.  Insulin is a hormone required for glucose mobilization from blood to the different body tissues like brain, and muscles etc., where the glucose is stored and utilized for energy. Type one diabetes is a disease condition where the pancreas is not able to produce insulin or the amount of insulin produced is very low. As a result the level of glucose in the blood increases, increasing the blood volume and increasing load on the kidney. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed early at 2 to 6 and hence it is also called juvenile diabetes. Type one diabetes can be best treated with human insulin injections or insulin pumps which provide human insulin dosage at regular intervals. This is also known as artificial pancreas.

Human insulin is the best treatment for type one diabetes, as insulin fulfils the need of the body of deficient hormone which is the root cause of the disease.

Pathophysiology of Increased urination and thirst.

To counter the increased blood volume, the body starts excretion of sodium ions through excretion of urine.

Therefore, A person with diabetes urination frequency is increased. It is called polyuria. To cope up with the loss of sodium ions the body feels thirsty and frequently feels thirsty which is termed as polydipsia.

What happens when a person is identified as type 1 diabetic? symptoms and signs of type 1 diabetes and its progression.

If the diabetes remains untreated it may affect the life of the individual.

Following diseases are observed in patients with untreated diabetes due to consistent higher glucose level in the blood, that affects the osmolality of the body tissue cells damaging the nerve and epithelial linings of the blood vessels.

1. Cerebrovascular disease. Brain stroke. Due to high blood pressure, damage to nerves, due to increased blood sugar level walls of blood vessels get damaged.

2. Cardiovascular Disease, narrowing of arteries, Angina, Cardiac arrest. Due to high blood pressure and congestive cardiac disease and ischemia developed due to diabetic high blood glucose level.

3. Diabetic nephropathy: Kidney damage due to high sugar and salt level which triggers autoimmune response against kidney and other organs.

4. Diabetic neuropathy: Damage to nerve resulting in nerve pain and tingling sensation.

5. Diabetic retinopathy, Cataract, Glaucoma.

6. Periodontal Disease. Damage to tooth gums.

7. Peripheral Vascular disease. Swelling and pain in veins, and vasculature.

8. Foot damage. Diabetic foot.

9. Wounds not healing, they take more time to heal the wound in case of diabetic patients.

10. Fungal infection in the oral cavity.

11. Fungal infection in genitals.


The glucose is the source of energy to our body, in normal instances glucose is used to synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A, which take part in various biochemical reactions in protein synthesis and formation ATP molecules, which are the source of biochemical heat emery in our body that is required for various biochemical processes like skeletal muscle contraction, and to do work.

In diabetes patients the increased blood glucose leads to formation of acetone which is the intermediate in formation of acetyl COenzyme A. The increased acetone in blood renders the blood acidic. This is called ketoacidosis, the acetone being a ketone, it is also termed as ketone bodies. Increased ketone bodies are toxic and harmful to brain cells and to kidney and small capillary blood vessels.

Is type 1 Diabetes genetic disorder?

Person or child with a family history of parents having diabetes, has more risk of getting type 1 diabetes. Some genes are responsible for defective pancreatic cells not producing insulin.

Pancreas of The patients affected with type 1 diabetes do not produce sufficient insulin. The reason may be several like, fibrosis of the pancreas, viral infection and autoimmune disease, that damage pancreas.

Is type 1 Diabetes autoimmune disorder?

Auto immune disorder is one of the reasons for damage of the pancreas of the patient by his own immune system.

Line of treatment for type 1 Diabetes.

First line of treatment for type 1 Diabetes is to start insulin, as per the required dosage to reduce the blood sugar to its optimal level. Thereafter mitigation of the increased blood pressure, increased cholesterol level.

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