What are monoclonal antibodies?
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are produced by isolation of a white blood cell that produce a specific antibodies against a specific antigen.
White blood cells when come in contact with any antigen like microorganism, a bacteria virus or any foreign protein capable of bringing harmful effects on the body produced by cancer cells and cancer cells itself.
White blood cells produce antibodies which neutralizes their toxic and harmful effect. White blood cells recognize and make memories of such antigens, and upon infection they produce antibodies. These antibodies are nonspecific and are capable of neutralizing vast numbers of antigens. While the mAbs are specific and target only specific antigen.
Hybridoma Technique for making mAbs producing cell lines.
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies produced in laboratory with the help of hybridoma technology, monoclonal antibodies are specific work against a specific antigen like cancer cell or pathogen or any foreign protein. Anticancer antibodies neutralizing antibodies are produced with hybridoma technology.
An antigen against whom the monoclonal antibodies are required to be produced is taken out and incubated with myeloid cells with the use of propylene glycol the cell wall of the both cells get fused the genetic material genes that produce antibodies get fused with myeloid cells now these fused cells are called as hybridoma. One of the single cell from these hybridoma cells is isolated and grown in culture media.
Whenever this hybridoma cell multiplies it produces the antibody which is specific against the injected antigen in the initial step these are moAbs. These antibodies are separated and purified and are used as therapeutic agents to treat many diseases like cancer by producing mAbs against the cancer cells.
Example of an mAbs used to treat Corona Virus During Pandemic. Monoclonal antibodies were approved for treatment of SARS-COV-2 infection by USFDA.