What is immunology? What is an Antigen? What is an antibody?
Immunology is the field that deals with the immune system of the human body. Immunology deals with Immunity. Immunity is the protective mechanism developed by the human body with the help of cellular and humoral immunity to protect against disease causing microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses and sometimes foreign protein molecules.
Immunology, the First level protection Physical protection, skin work as barrier to Bacterial and Virus infection:
Human body is protected by skin and cell linings which protect humans from external infectious microorganisms, foreign particles and proteins. Immunity of a person protects his body from infections of virus, bacteria fungi and from foreign proteins which are harmful to the human body.
Role of immunoglobulin in imparting immunity:
Whenever any foreign matter or any bacteria virus or a fungi or a foreign protein or particles enter in to our body or enter in to blood stream directly or through absorbtion, our body elicit an immune response and produce a protein to neutralise eliminate or kill the foreign particles or microorganism, these proteins have very specific arrangement Like Y letter, these are also called as antibodies. These proteins are known as Immunoglobulins. The immunoglobulins or the antibodies are the gamma globulin proteins with a specific affection to bacterial receptors on bacterial and viral cell and other toxic molecules cancerous cells etc., immunoglobulins bind to them and neutralize their toxic effect by preventing them from entering in to human host cell or preventing their attachment to human tissue cells thereby preventing their growth. Immunoglobulin neutralizes and eliminates the infectious microorganisms to such an extent that sometimes our body is made completely free from the infectious microorganisms, depending on the type of microorganism and immunoglobulins produced.
There are five types of Immunoglobulins IgM, IgD, IgA, IgG, IgE. IgA are of great importance in disease control.
IgM are the immunoglobulins which are the first line of protective mechanism of our body, until IgA immunoglobulins are produced in the body.
IgG Most of the immunoglobulins are IgG, which are available in some amount so that if any infection comes in their production is triggered. They protect our body from Bacterial and Viral infection.
IgA are available in saliva, and lachrymal secretions, gastric secretions, and respiratory tract, they protect these delicate parts of the body from infections.
Interferons: Interferons are protein molecules which bind to pathogenic antigen that is microorganism, bacteria virus or fungi and cancerous cell and facilitate binding of immunoglobulins to the pathogenic antigen.
Role of White Blood Cells: Basophile: immunology.
Basophile are white blood cells which has important role in imparting immunity against parasitic infections. WBC engulf foreign particles by phagocytosis, neutrophils kill foreign objects by releasing and attaching Immunoglobulins with Basophile and paracite, bacterial or fungal cells due to which the cell wall gets dissolved and the bacterial or foreign cell is killed. Basophile also regulate allergic and Inflammatory response due to an infection from viral or Bacterial fungal or parasitic origin.
Immunoglobulins which are also called as antibodies hereafter will be termed as antibodies produced by B cells and T lymphocytic cells.
Lymphocytes are cells which are called WBCs and are responsible for imparting humoral immunity through production, secretion of antibodies in the response of any infection.
Immunoglobulins: are secreted by WBCs and released in blood, immunoglobulins attach to bacterial, viral, or any other harmful cell like cancer cell and foreign proteins.
Immunity can be classified into two major groups as.
Natural immunity and Artificial Immunity. In natural immunity immune response is developed in the body with natural infections, while artificial immunity is the immunity which is developed by artificially sensitizing the body with antigen.
Passive immunity: Is directly providing antibodies against any infection, mother to child transfer of ready antibodies is also called passive immunity.
Active immunity is a type of immunity when sensitization of the body happens due to either natural infection or intentional sensitization with vaccines.
Herd Immunity: It is a type of immunity which develops resistance to a particular disease or infectious microorganism over a period of time through infections passed to the vast majority of the population.
Role of White Blood Cells in imparting immunity:
Antigen Antibody Binding:
Different types of Vaccines:
Different types of Antibodies:
References for Immunology Study.
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