Ringworm infection treatment

Detail information about different fungal infections and causative species and drug treatments for Aspergillosis, Blastomycosis, Candidiasis, Chromoblastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever), Cryptococcosis, Dermatophytosis, Fusariosis, Histoplasmosis, Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis), Paracoccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia Sporotrichosis, Tinea (Pityriasis) Versicolor.


Aspergillosis is a group of fungal infections caused by various species of the Aspergillus fungus. The most common species responsible for the disease are Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus. These fungi are found in the environment, especially in decaying vegetation and soil. When inhaled, the spores of Aspergillus can enter the respiratory system and cause infections in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions. Aspergillosis can manifest in different forms, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), and invasive aspergillosis (IA), the latter being the most severe form that affects major organs and can be life-threatening.

Antifungal Drugs for Aspergillosis: Voriconazole, Isavuconazole, Posaconazole, Amphotericin B (liposomal), Caspofungin, Micafungin, Anidulafungin.

2. Blastomycosis:

Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The fungus is commonly found in soil enriched with decomposing organic matter, particularly in areas near water bodies such as lakes and rivers. The infection is primarily acquired by inhaling the fungal spores, which can lead to pulmonary symptoms resembling pneumonia. In some cases, the infection can spread beyond the lungs to other organs, causing disseminated blastomycosis, which can be severe and require aggressive treatment.

Antifungal Drugs for Blastomycosis: Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Amphotericin B (liposomal), Posaconazole, Fluconazole.

3. Candidiasis:

Candidiasis is an infection caused by various species of the Candida fungus. The most common culprit is Candida albicans, but other species like C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parasilosis, and C. tropicalis can also cause infections. Candida fungi are normally present in small amounts on the skin and mucous membranes, but they can overgrow and cause infection under certain conditions, such as a weakened immune system, hormonal changes, or the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Candidiasis can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth (thrush), vagina (vaginal yeast infection), skin, and bloodstream.

Antifungal Drugs for Candidiasis: Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Caspofungin, Micafungin, Anidulafungin, Amphotericin B (liposomal).

Topical Treatment: Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Nystatin, Econazole, Terbinafine, and others are used for skin and mucous membrane Candida infections.

4. Chromoblastomycosis (Chromomycosis):

Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection caused by several fungi, including Cladosporium carrionii, Phialophora verrucosa, and Fonsecaea pedrosoi. These fungi are commonly found in soil and plant material. The infection typically enters the skin through traumatic injuries or puncture wounds and slowly progresses over months to years. It results in raised, wart-like lesions on the skin, which contain characteristic dark, sclerotic (hardened) bodies known as muriform cells.

Antifungal Drugs for  Chromoblastomycosis (Chromomycosis):  Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Terbinafine, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B (liposomal).

5. Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever):

Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, is caused by the fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. These fungi thrive in arid and semiarid regions, particularly in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. The infection is acquired by inhaling the airborne spores from the soil. Most people with coccidioidomycosis experience mild to no symptoms, but in some cases, it can lead to flu-like symptoms, pneumonia, and even disseminated disease affecting other organs.

Antifungal Drugs for Coccidioidomycosis: Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Amphotericin B (liposomal).

6. Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. The fungi are typically found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. The infection is acquired through inhalation of fungal spores. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, are particularly susceptible to cryptococcosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also spread to the central nervous system, leading to potentially fatal meningoencephalitis.

Antifungal Drugs for Cryptococcosis: Amphotericin B (liposomal), Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Flucytosine.

7. Dermatophytosis (Tinea):

Dermatophytosis, commonly known as Tinea or ringworm, is a superficial fungal infection that affects the skin, hair, and nails. It is caused by various species of fungi known as dermatophytes. The most common species involved are Microsporum spp., Epidermophyton spp., and Trichophyton spp. Dermatophytes thrive in warm and humid environments and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals, animals, or contaminated objects. The infection results in itchy, red, and circular lesions on the skin, leading to the name “ringworm,” although it is not caused by worms.

Orally Taken Antifungal Drugs for  Dermatophytosis (Tinea):

Terbinafine, Itraconazole, Fluconazole, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole.

Topically applied drugs in the treatment of Dermatophytosis (Tinea) : Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Terbinafine, Ketoconazole, and others are used for skin and nail infections.

8. Fusariosis:

Fusariosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening fungal infection caused by various species of the Fusarium fungus, including Fusarium oxysporum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides. Fusarium fungi are found in soil and plant material, and infection can occur through inhalation of spores, ingestion of contaminated food, or direct contact with the skin. Fusariosis can manifest in different forms, such as localized skin infections, eye infections, and severe invasive disease in immunocompromised individuals.

Antifungal Drugs for Fusariosis: Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Isavuconazole, Amphotericin B (liposomal), Echinocandins (e.g., Caspofungin).

9. Histoplasmosis:

Histoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The fungus is commonly found in soil enriched with bird droppings, particularly in areas with large bird populations. Inhalation of fungal spores is the primary mode of infection. Histoplasmosis can vary in severity, ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms resembling flu to severe disseminated disease affecting multiple organs. People with weakened immune systems, including those with HIV/AIDS, are more susceptible to severe forms of histoplasmosis.

Antifungal Drugs for Histoplasmosis: Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Posaconazole, Amphotericin B (liposomal), and in severe cases, Amphotericin B deoxycholate.

10. Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis):

Mucormycosis, also known as Zygomycosis, is a rare but aggressive fungal infection caused by fungi belonging to the Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. These fungi are ubiquitous in the environment, especially in decaying organic matter and soil. Mucormycosis typically affects individuals with severely compromised immune systems, uncontrolled diabetes, or extensive trauma/burn injuries. The infection often enters through the respiratory tract and can rapidly spread to the sinuses, brain, lungs, or skin. It is associated with high mortality rates and requires prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment.

Antifungal Drugs for Mucormycosis: Amphotericin B (liposomal), Posaconazole, Isavuconazole, and sometimes combination therapy.

11. Paracoccidioidomycosis:

Paracoccidioidomycosis, also known as South American blastomycosis, is caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The fungus is prevalent in Central and South America and is found in soil and vegetation. Inhalation of fungal spores is the primary mode of infection. Paracoccidioidomycosis primarily affects the lungs, leading to respiratory symptoms, but it can also disseminate to other organs. The disease can present as an acute or chronic condition, with chronic cases exhibiting granulomatous lesions in multiple organs.

Antifungal Drugs for Paracoccidioidomycosis: Itraconazole, Sulfadiazine + Pyrimethamine (for severe cases), and Amphotericin B (liposomal) for severe, disseminated disease.

12. Pneumocystis pneumonia:

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a severe lung infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as P. carinii). Pneumocystis fungi are widespread and commonly found in the environment. Most healthy individuals have some level of immunity to Pneumocystis, but it can cause life-threatening pneumonia in people with weakened immune systems, particularly those with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. PCP can lead to severe respiratory symptoms and requires prompt medical intervention.

Antifungal Drugs for treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), Pentamidine, Atovaquone.

13. Sporotrichosis:

Sporotrichosis is a chronic fungal infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The fungus is found in soil, plants, and decaying organic matter. Infection usually occurs through direct skin contact with contaminated material, such as thorns or plant material. The infection initially appears as a small skin lesion and can progress along lymphatic vessels, leading to nodules and ulcers. Sporotrichosis can also affect joints, bones, and internal organs in severe cases.

Antifungal Drugs for Sporotrichosis: Itraconazole, Potassium Iodide, Fluconazole, Terbinafine, Amphotericin B (liposomal).

14. Tinea (Pityriasis) Versicolor:

Tinea versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by the fungi Malassezia furfur (also known as Pityrosporum orbiculare) and M. globosa. These fungi are part of the normal skin flora but can overgrow under certain conditions, leading to skin discoloration and the appearance of light or dark patches on the skin. Tinea versicolor is more common in hot and humid climates and is not typically associated with serious health risks.

Antifungal Drugs for Tinea versicolor: Topical antifungal creams containing Selenium sulfide, Ketoconazole, or other azole antifungals are commonly used.

Fungal infections can vary widely in their presentation and severity. Some are relatively harmless and can be treated with topical antifungal medications, while others can be life-threatening and require systemic antifungal therapy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for managing these infections effectively and preventing complications, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems. If you suspect you have any fungal infection or experience persistent symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention for proper evaluation and care.

Referances: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560624/

Different types of Fungal infections and causative fungi
Microsporum canis responsible for tenia corporis

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