Botulinum toxin (Botox) injection (onabotulinumtoxinA) is approved by US FDA for treatment of chronic migraine to prevent headaches in adult patients which are associated with migraine. OnabotulinumtoxinA, marketed as Botox and Botox Cosmetic.
Botulinum toxin is a toxin prodced by Clostridium botulinum Botulinum toxins is extremely neurotoxic agent, but has very great value in treating some of neurological disorders and diseases which are difficult to treat with chemotherapeutic agents, here in the discussion Chronic Migraine.
Botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission ,by blocking neurotransmitter like Acetyleholine (Ach) by binding on receptor site , taming the excitatory effect of neurotransmitter partially or completely which is considered one of the pathway for effectiveness of botulinum toxin as a medication to correct the disorders associated with nervous system it self.
Following are some of applications of Botulinum toxin in medicine
Botox Cosmetic is used to improve frown lines at the recommended dose, Botulinum toxin is also used in Muscle spasms, Upper motor neuron syndrome, Cervical dystonia , Sweating, blepharospasm, or strabismus
Botulinum toxin get destroyed due to denaturation at temperatures above 60°C (140°F),
Brief Information about Migraine
Migraine is neurological syndrome, a disease condition that result in severe headaches, and nausea, altered bodily perceptions, migraine headache is typical and characterized by pain in half of the head , pulsating that lasts for 4 to 72 hours.
Symptoms include : Phonophobia (increased sensitivity to sound), photophobia (increased sensitivity to light) ,nausea, vomiting.
Chronic migraine is a state of repeated occurrence of migraine individual with chronic migraine suffer with severe headache repeatedly , this affects the individuals professional ,social and personal life.
Causes of migraine are attributed to several mechanisms important ones amongst them are disorder of the serotonergic control system , hormonal imbalance, or irritation and inflammation of nerves and blood vessels in brain, it is also said to be due to genetic disorder, about 75 percent of adult patients are women, and young prepubescent individuals ,most of the treatments for migraine includes treatment with analgesics for the headache, an antiemetic for the nausea.
Botox is currently approved for treatment of chronic migraines, Botox is required to be administered approximately every 12 weeks as multiple injections around the head and neck to try to dull future headache symptoms. Botox’s effectiveness is not assessed for the treatment of migraine headaches occurring in 14 days or less per month, or for other forms of headache. It is advised that patients should discuss with their physician about suitability of Botox is for them.
The most common adverse reactions observed in patients treated for chronic migraine were neck pain and headache.Treatment with botox may result in symptoms similar to those of botulism , as a result of spreading of botulinum toxin from the area of injection to other areas of the body. Toxin do not spread if has been used at the recommended dose to treat chronic migraine.
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