Chemistry behind the allergic reactions and mode of action of betalactum antibiotics:
To avoid cross contamination of other products with betalactam antibiotics because
A.The betalactum antibiotics may cause anaphylactic shock and anaphylaxis or may cause life threatening allergic reactions.
B.The betalactum antibiotics molecules mode of action is more or less cytotoxic as discussed below.
C.Untoward consumption of betalactam antibiotics as contaminant in other product in smaller amount may result in development untoward Drug Resistance or antibiotic Resistance for betalactam antibiotics, and when ever desired, betalactam drugs may not prove effective in individuals who got betalactam antibiotic in contamination.
The question is very simple and the answer too is very simple but we will like to provide you a answer to your question which is based up on chemistry of the betalactum antibiotic molecule.
Hence first one should know how a betalactam antibiotics act against microorganisms
What is the mode of action of betalactum antibiotics?
1. Acylation of proteins
2. Generation Free radical Iminium ions which are cytotoxic to bacterial enzymes and proteins
1. Betalactum antibiotics contain a betalactum ring; this ring is a chemically active portion of the betalactam antibiotics as it takes part in reaction in vitro to bring about acylation of amino acids in proteins and enzymes, a acylation at a terminal end in protein amino acid result in termination of polymerization process in protein synthesis specially the cell wall proteins.
2. Betalactam ring in presence of certain PH range get converted in to a very unstable free radical which is very cytotoxic to microorganisms cellular proteins and enzymes, Iminium ion is very active and cytotoxic moiety which takes part in numerous reactions which are responsible for cytotoxic effects.
Why a allergic reaction occurs in penicillin drugs
As discussed above penicillin’s are betalactam antibiotics and about 7% to 8 % of individuals in world are allergic to penicillin’s and the allergy may be a life threatening for an individual
Because in vitro penicillin get reacted with human proteins to form a penicilloilproteins these proteins are synthesized as a result of acylation reaction over the human proteins and they are now new proteins after acylation and recognized as antigens in human immune system, they triggers a sequence of immunological responses by developing antibodies against these penicilloilproteins which further reacts to form antibody and antigen complexes , these reactions are sever and may be harmful to an individual.
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