Antibiotics is a group of drugs or substance or compounds which inhibits or completely stops growth or kills bacteria , fungi or yeasts or protozoa , when present in very minute concentration , these are mostly metabolites produced by microorganisms which antagonises the microbial growth it self if present in very low concentration.
Most of the antibiotics are modified struculaly to alter its pharmacokinetic or stability and antimicrobial properties so as to produce a most effective antibiotic, also most of them can be synthesized in laboratories.
See also antibiotic resitance and drug resistance mechanism
Classification of Antibiotics
Ansamycins: Antitumor antibiotics
Mode of action:prevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
Carbapenems:Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial
Mode of action :Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Mode of action :Inhibits the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Glycopeptides class of antibiotics
Mode of action : Peptidoglycan synthesis inhibition
Lincosamides class of antibiotics
Mode of action :Blocks 50S subunit of and protein synthesis
Macrolides class of antibiotics
Mode of action :irreversible bloking of 50s microbial ribosome, inhibit translation of tRNA and inhibit protien synthesis.
Monobactams class of antibioticsMode of action :inhibits synthesis of peptidoglycan and cell wall
Penicillins class of antibiotics
Mode of action :inhibits synthesis of peptidoglycan and cell wall
Polypeptides class of antibiotics
Mode of action :Inhibition of isoprenyl pyrophosphate, one of the molecule responsible for building peptidoglycan synthesis of bacterial cell wall
Quinolones class of antibiotics
Mode of action :inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme and inhibit DNA replication.
Sulfonamides class of antibiotics
Mode of action :Competitive inhibition of bacterial enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase,microbial nuclic acids synthesis is inhibited as microbial folic acid synthesis is inhibited.
Tetracyclines class of antibiotics
Mode of action :It inhibits binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome there by inhibiting translation process which is an inportant step in protein synthesis .
Rifampin or Rifampicin
Amphenicols class of antibiotics
Mode of action :Inhibits peptidyl transferase to 50S ribosome bacterial subunit
Cycloserine , is antibiotic derived from cyclisation of serin ,
Mode of action :Inhibits enzyme alanine racemase and D-alanine ligase
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