What is Anemia? What is macrocytic anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, Pernicious anemia, Megaloblastic anemia?
Red blood cells in our body has a very important function , which is supplying oxygen to rest of our body , they are able carryout this function as they contain iron which react with the oxygen molecule minds with it and wherever blood circulates it deliver oxygen to that part of body tissue. The main substance which carry iron is a protein well known by name “Hemoglobin”, in person suffering from anemia his red blood cells are not able to perform the function of carrying oxygen to different part of body , the condition is called as anemia,
There are several factors responsible for anemia, basic reason why a person become anemic is due to following reason
Macrocytic anemia (Red blood cells are larger compared to normal RBC’S) : Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Macrocytic anemia is caused due to deficiency of vitamin b12 in our body , our body absorbs vitamin b12 from food , as well as our intestinal bacterial flora synthesis vitamin b12 which is absorbed in o blood with the help of an intrinsic factor in stomach , intrinsic factor binds vitamin b12 in stomach and intestine and transport it to blood from where it is taken up by various systems for biochemical cycles and metabolism, the deficiency of intrinsic factor in stomach reduces the vitamin b12 absorption in blood in .When stomach lining (surface cells ) can not produce intrinsic factor due to damaged stomach surface lining , a state which makes a person affected deprive of vitamin B12 which causes anemia, this type of anemia is known as pernicious anemia.
Megaloblastic anemia is caused due to deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid, it is called megaloblastic as the red blood cells are larger in size compared to normal red blood cells therefore their life is shorter compared to normal red blood cells which makes body deprived of red blood cells and hemoglobin.
Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia are as follows
Pale skin, Constipation, Diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, problem in berating, Vitamin B12 deficiency also causes nerve damage therefore a good balanced diet rich in vitamin B12 and folic acid is of importance for maintaining good health.
Deficiency of vitamin B12 may be because for poor food intake, or because of underlying pathopysiological conditions as follows.
1. Long term treatment with heavy antibiotics.
2. Weight loss surgery which removes some part of intestine.
3. Chronic alcohol consumption.
4. Taking antacid medicines for longer period.
5. Celiac disease where food is not properly absorbed from small intestine because of damage in intestinal surface or lining.
6. Crohn’s disease, in this disease which is a auto immune disease causing inflammation of bowel and intestines (Inflammatory bowel disease)
7. Vegetarian Diet
8. Undernourishment in pregnancy.
9. Undernourished infant.
Treatment of anemia:
Always treatment of anemia is done considering the root cause , many time the root cause is dietary insufficiency , which can be fulfilled by well balanced nutritional diet.
Medicines containing vitamin B12, folic acid and Iron and vitamin C are given, Vitamin B12 injections are given to patients suffering from pernicious anemia.
Eating diet rich in shellfish, eggs, meat, poultry, helps in recovering faster along with medication.