Anemia causes types of Anemia and treatment
Anemia is a disease condition caused by reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood. The oxygen carrying capacity of blood depends on the availability of hemoglobin.Before going to topic anemia causes types of Anemia and treatment, let’s understand what is role vitamins minarals in blood formation and hemoglobin formation.
Hemoglobin formation depends upon various factors like. Iron, Cobalt, Calcium and various minerals. And various cofactors, vitamins like Vitamin 12 folic acid (vitamin B9) , Vitamin B6, Biotin. Thiamin and Riboflavin.
Deficiency in getting them from food or lack of absorption of these vitamins and minerals from the gut causes anemia. In short if there is injury blood loss from the body then the anemia is due to iron and vitamins deficiency caused by malnutrition.
There are three causes of anemia.
2) Genetic disorders that produce defective red blood cells. Sideroblastic anemia
3) Excessive uncontrolled blood loss: Women with irregular menstrual bleeding. Uterine fibroids.
Red Blood cells (RBC) count RBC relation with Anemia.
Since the red blood cells consist of hemoglobin the main function of RBC is to collect oxygen from lungs and supply it to body tissues like brain and heart. If the blood supply to these organ stops they go into shock, brain cells die and Fast or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) heart attack .
Symptoms of Anemia.
Patients affected with anemia show the following symptoms.
Anemia develops into fatigue and tiredness. Patients get tired very fast and develop muscle weakness and Fatigue. This is due to low amounts of oxygen due to hemoglobin deficiency. Also peculiar Pale or yellow skin is observed due to hemoglobin deficiency.
Shortness of breath (dyspnea): Due to shortage of oxygen in body tissue the lungs are forced to overwork and shortness of breath Chest pain: and dizziness is seen in anemic patients.
Patient with anemia feels a peculiar sound in the ear which is called whooshing sound/ Pounding or “whooshing” sound in ear which is due to pulsatile tinnitus. Due to shortage of oxygen patients develop headaches.
There are three types of anemia.
1.Anemia caused by Iron and vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency.
A) Pernicious Anemia
C) Iron deficiency anemia.
2.Anemia caused by genetic disorder
A) Sickle cell Anemia. B) Diamond-Blackfan anemia
3) Anemia due to bone marrow failure or lack of function Fanconi Anemia (FA).
3. Abnormal Red blood cell.
A) Normocytic Anemia: RBC have normal shape and size while they are deficient in hemoglobin.
B) Microcytic Anemia: RBC size gets smaller due to hemoglobin shortage.
c) Macrocytic Anemia: RBC produced are larger than usual while the hemoglobin content is low.
D) Sideroblastic anemia (SA) Congenital Sideroblastic anemia (CSA): Defective iron metabolism and defect in iron utilisation by RBCs. This type of Anemia occur due to genetic defect.
Treatment of Anemia
As per different types of Anemia causes types of Anemia and treatment is decided.
In case of hemoglobin level below 6, blood transfusions are provided. In case of iron deficiency and vitamin deficiency anemia. Medicine containing iron and vitamin B12, folic acid, Magnesium, and copper mineral supplements is given. For hemoglobin production not only ions but small amounts of magnesium and copper metal ions are required for protein synthesis and enzyme functions. Absorption of iron from the gut.
Many doctors prefer combination products of multivitamins, but it’s better to take iron and mineral supplement products separate and multivitamin preparations separate due to the stability of vitamins with metal ion is not good. Products deteriorate faster once they are opened for use.
For anemia associated with defects in stem cells bone marrow transplantation is done, such anemias are corrected after bone marrow transplantation.