Air Handling Systems, Heating,Ventilation andAir Conditioning (HVAC)
Objectives ,WHO GMP
To understand:
The need and reason for pharmaceutical
air handling systems
The technical requirements for air handling systems
Different types of air handling systems
Qualification and monitoring requirements

Factors that contribute to quality products:

Starting materials and packaging materials
1.Validated processes
5.Design and quality of premises
6.Manufacturing environment
Inadequacies in the above factors will lead to sub-standard products

The manufacturing environment is critical for
product quality

Air movement
Microbial contamination
Particulate contamination
Uncontrolled environment can lead to product degradation
product contamination
loss of product and profit
What are contaminants ?
Contaminants are
Products or substances other than product manufactured
Foreign products
Particulate matter
Endotoxins (degraded micro-organisms)

Cross-contamination is a particular case of contamination

Cross-Contamination (1)
What is Cross-Contamination ?

Definition of Cross-Contamination: Contamination of a starting material, intermediate product, or finished product with another starting material or product during production.

Cross-Contamination (2)
From where does Cross-Contamination originate?
Poorly designed air handling systems and dust extraction systems
Poorly operated and maintained air handling systems and dust
extraction systems
Inadequate procedures for personnel and equipment
Insufficiently cleaned equipment

from EnvironmentOperators===>Conatmination Cross Contamination <===Product from equipmet Cross-Contamination (4)
Cross-contamination can be minimized by:
Personnel procedures
Adequate premises
Use of closed production systems
Adequate, validated cleaning procedures
Appropriate levels of protection of product
Correct air pressure cascade
Level of Protection Concept
Defines environmental requirements

Helps prevent contamination and cross-contamination

Allows production under optimal hygiene conditions

Takes into account ==> product sensitivity to contamination & therapeutic risk

Levels of Protection
Parameters to be defined:
Air cleanliness requirements (filters type and position, air changes, air flow patterns, pressure differentials, contamination levels by particulate matter and micro-organisms)
Personnel and material transfer methods
Permitted operations
Building design and finishes
Levels of Protection
All operations within a pharmaceutical facilility must be correlated to well-defined cleanroom classes, and can be included in a hygiene concept.

Levels of Protection
Based on the cleanroom class requirements, various Levels of Protection have to be created, including:

Correlation between process operations and cleanroom classes
Type of operation permitted in each Level of Protection
Definition of cleanroom class (parameters, building materials,
room requirements, HVAC systems)
Requirements for personnel and material in the different classes (clothing, training, type of materials, etc.)
Requirements on entry conditions for personnel and material ( change procedures )
Parameters influencing Levels of Protection (1)
Supply Air Production Room With Defined Requirements ,
Air Handling System
Also see Pharmaceutical Process Validation
Parameters influencing Levels of Protection (2)
Number of particles in the air
Number of micro-organisms in the air or on surfaces
Number of air changes for each room
Air velocity
Air flow pattern
Filters ( type, position )
Air pressure differentials between rooms
Temperature, humidity
Parameters influencing Levels of Protection
Air handling systems:
Are the main tool for reaching required parameters
But are not sufficient as such
Need for additional measures such as
appropriate gowning (type of clothing, proper changing rooms)
validated, sanitation
adequate transfer procedures for materials and personnel
You can send this blog by emailing this website to your friends and colleagues who are working in a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm
Following are some of articles which;will be useful for you in further understanding of aspects of sterile dosage form manufacturing

Pharmaceutical Validation

Clean Room Classification

Pharmaceutical Industry

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

Clinical Trials

FDA guidelines

What is CFR 21 PART 11

What is HEPA filter

GMP guidelines
To Find Pharmaceutical jobs and make a Pharmaceutical careers see here pharmaceutical companies

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